Peripheral nerve regeneration research and science by Karim Sarhane today? One-fifth to one-third of patients with traumatic injuries to their arms and legs experience nerve injury, which can be devastating. It can result in muscle weakness or numbness, prevent walking or using the arms, and reduce the ability to perform daily activities. Even with surgery, some nerve injuries never recover, and currently there are not many medical options to address this problem. In 2022, the researchers plan to perform this research on more primates to triple the size of the original group. The study can then move into phase I clinical trials for humans.
Dr. Karim Sarhane is an MD MSc graduate from the American University of Beirut. Following graduation, he completed a 1-year internship in the Department of Surgery at AUB. He then joined the Reconstructive Transplantation Program of the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at Johns Hopkins University for a 2-year research fellowship. He then completed a residency in the Department of Surgery at the University of Toledo (2021). In July 2021, he started his plastic surgery training at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. He is a Diplomate of the American Board of Surgery (2021).
The use of hydrogels encapsulated with varying concentrations of IGF-1 allows for a prolonged and potentially tunable release in vivo (Yuan et al., 2000; Mathonnet et al., 2001; Kikkawa et al., 2014; Bayrak et al., 2017). The specific hydrogel formulations that have been evaluated vary with regards to IGF-1 release kinetics, degradation rate, and biocompatibility. Despite differences in study design, the majority of hydrogel studies included in Table 6 used a water-soluble polymer oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) (OPF) hydrogel with encapsulated gelatin microparticles (Yuan et al., 2000; Holland et al., 2005; Kikkawa et al., 2014; Bayrak et al., 2017). The extent of crosslinking within the OPF hydrogel as well as the use of encapsulated gelatin particles with variable isoelectric points allows for tunability of IGF-1 release. The cumulative release of IGF-1 by this hydrogel formulation was reported to be 95.2% ± 2.9% by Day 28, with some studies achieving a similar cumulative release within 48 h (Yuan et al., 2000; Kikkawa et al., 2014).
Recovery by sustained IGF-1 delivery (Karim Sarhane research) : We successfully engineered a nanoparticle delivery system that provides sustained release of bioactive IGF-1 for 20 days in vitro; and demonstrated in vivo efficacy in a translational animal model. IGF-1 targeted to denervated nerve and muscle tissue provides significant improvement in functional recovery by enhancing nerve regeneration and muscle reinnervation while limiting denervation-induced muscle atrophy and SC senescence. Targeting the multimodal effects of IGF-1 with a novel delivery.
Patients who sustain peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) are often left with debilitating sensory and motor loss. Presently, there is a lack of clinically available therapeutics that can be given as an adjunct to surgical repair to enhance the regenerative process. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) represents a promising therapeutic target to meet this need, given its well-described trophic and anti-apoptotic effects on neurons, Schwann cells (SCs), and myocytes. Here, we review the literature regarding the therapeutic potential of IGF-1 in PNI. We appraised the literature for the various approaches of IGF-1 administration with the aim of identifying which are the most promising in offering a pathway toward clinical application. We also sought to determine the optimal reported dosage ranges for the various delivery approaches that have been investigated.
We comprehensively reviewed the literature for original studies examining the efficacy of IGF-1 in treating PNI. We queried the PubMed and Embase databases for terms including “Insulin-Like Growth Factor I,” “IGF1,” “IGF-1,” “somatomedin C,” “PNIs,” “peripheral nerves,” “nerve injury,” “nerve damage,” “nerve trauma,” “nerve crush,” “nerve regeneration,” and “nerve repair.” Following title review, our search yielded 218 results. Inclusion criteria included original basic science studies utilizing IGF-1 as a means of addressing PNI. Following abstract review, 56 studies were sorted by study type and mechanism of delivery into the following categories: (1) in vitro, (2) in vivo endogenous upregulation of IGF-1, or (3) in vivo delivery of exogenous IGF-1. Studies included in the in vivo exogenous IGF-1 group were further sub-stratified into systemic or local delivery, and the local IGF-1 delivery methods were further sub-divided into free IGF-1 injection, hydrogel, or mini-pump studies. Following categorization by mechanism of IGF-1 delivery, the optimal dosage range for each group was calculated by converting all reported IGF-1 dosages to nM for ease of comparison using the standard molecular weight of IGF-1 of 7649 Daltons. After standardization of dosages to nM, the IGF-1 concentration reported as optimal from each study was used to calculate the overall mean, median, and range of optimal IGF-1 dosage for each group.